Books

Mollborn, Stefanie. 2017. Mixed Messages: Norms and Social Control around Teen Sex and Pregnancy. Oxford University Press.

Mixed Messages book cover

Teenagers in the United States hear conflicting messages about sex from everyone around them. How do teens understand these messages? In Mixed Messages, Stefanie Mollborn examines how social norms and social control work through in-depth interviews with college students and teen mothers and fathers, revealing the tough conversations teenagers just can’t have with adults. By showing that the norms existing today around teen sex are ineffective, failing to regulate sexual behavior, and instead punishing teens that violate them, Mollborn calls for a more thoughtful and consistent dialogue between teens and adults, emphasizing messages that will lead to more positive health outcomes.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Everett, Bethany G., Mollborn, Stefanie, Jenkins, Virginia, Limburg, Aubrey, & Diamond, Lisa M. (2020). Racial/ethnic differences in unwanted births: Moderation by sexual orientation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Early access. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12656

Goode, Joshua A., Fomby, Paula, Mollborn, Stefanie, & Limburg, Aubrey. (2020). Children’s technology time in two US cohorts. Child Indicators Research, 13(3), 1107-1132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-019-09675-x

Horne, Christine, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2020). Norms. Annual Review of Sociology, 46 (in press). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-054658

Limburg, Aubrey, Everett, Bethany G., Mollborn, Stefanie, & Kominiarek, Michelle A. (2020). Sexual orientation disparities in preconception health. Journal of Women’s Health, 29(6), 755-762. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2019.8054

Mollborn, Stefanie, Rigles, Bethany, & Pace, Jennifer A. (2020). “Healthier than just healthy”: Families transmitting health as cultural capital. Social Problems, Published: 01 May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spaa015

Rogers, Richard G., Hummer, Robert A., Tilstra, Andrea M., Lawrence, Elizabeth M., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2020). Family structure and early life mortality in the United States. Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(4), 1159-1177. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12674

Everett, Bethany G., Kominiarek, Michelle A., Mollborn, Stefanie, Adkins, Daniel E., & Hughes, Tonda L. (2019). Sexual orientation disparities in pregnancy and infant outcomes. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 23(1), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-018-2595-x Free PubMed version.

Fomby, Paula, Goode, Joshua A., Truong-Vu, Kim-Phuong, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2019). Adolescent technology, sleep, and physical activity time in two U.S. cohorts. Youth & Society, Early access, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118×19868365

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Lawrence, Elizabeth. (2018). Family, peer, and school influences on children’s developing health lifestyles. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(1), 133-150. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146517750637 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Lawrence, Elizabeth, & Root, Elisabeth Dowling. (2018). Residential mobility across early childhood and children’s kindergarten readiness. Demography, 55(2), 485-510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0652-0 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Woo, Juhee, & Rogers, Richard G. (2018). A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk. Demographic Research, 38(article 24), 619-650. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2018.38.24 Free PubMed version.

Wedow, Robbee, Masters, Ryan K., Mollborn, Stefanie, Schnabel, Landon, & Boardman, Jason D. (2018). Body size reference norms and subjective weight status: A gender and life course approach. Social Forces, 96(3), 1377-1409. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sox073 Free PubMed version.

Fomby, Paula, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2017). Ecological instability and children’s classroom behavior in kindergarten. Demography, 54(5), 1627-1651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-017-0602-2 Free PubMed version.

Lawrence, Elizabeth, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2017). Racial/ethnic patterns of kindergarten school enrollment in the United States. Sociological Forum, 32(3), 635-658. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12352 Free PubMed version.

Lawrence, Elizabeth M., Mollborn, Stefanie, & Hummer, Robert A. (2017). Health lifestyles across the transition to adulthood: Implications for health. Social Science & Medicine, 193, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.09.041 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2017). Mixed messages: Norms and social control around teen sex and pregnancy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2017). Teenage mothers today: What we know and how it matters. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12205 Free PubMed version.

Everett, Bethany G., Saint Onge, Jarron, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2016). Effects of minority status and perceived discrimination on mental health. Population Research and Policy Review, 35(4), 445-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-016-9391-3 Free PubMed version.

Fomby, Paula, Goode, Joshua A., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2016). Family complexity, siblings, and children’s aggressive behavior at school entry. Demography, 53(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-015-0443-9 Free PubMed version.

Lawrence, Elizabeth, Mollborn, Stefanie, & Riosmena, Fernando. (2016). Early childhood disadvantage for sons of Mexican immigrants: Body mass index across ages 2-5. American Journal of Health Promotion, 30(7), 545-553. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.140725-QUAN-366 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2016). [Review of the book On becoming a teen mom: Life before pregnancy, by Mary Patrice Erdmans and Timothy Black]. Contemporary Sociology, 45(4), 430-432. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094306116653953o

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2016). Young children’s developmental ecologies and kindergarten readiness. Demography, 53(6), 1853-1882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-016-0528-0 Free PubMed version.

Fomby, Paula, James-Hawkins, Laurie, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2015). Family resources in two generations and school readiness among children of teen parents. Population Research and Policy Review, 34(5), 733-759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-015-9363-z Free PubMed version.

Lawrence, Elizabeth, Root, Elisabeth Dowling, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2015). Residential mobility in early childhood: Household and neighborhood characteristics of movers and non-movers. Demographic Research, 33(32), 939-950. https://doi.org/10.4054/demres.2015.33.32 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2015). Mixed messages about teen sex. Contexts, 14(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536504214567855 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Everett, Bethany. (2015). Understanding the educational attainment of sexual minority women and men. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 41, 40–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2015.04.004 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Jacobs, Janet. (2015). “I’ll be there for you”: Teen parents’ coparenting relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(2), 373-387. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12175

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Sennott, Christie. (2015). Bundles of norms about teen sex and pregnancy. Qualitative Health Research, 25(9), 1283-1299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314557086

Short, Susan E., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2015). Social determinants and health behaviors: Conceptual frames and empirical advances. Current Opinion in Psychology, 5, 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.05.002 Free PubMed version.

Everett, Bethany G., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2014). Examining sexual orientation disparities in unmet medical needs among men and women. Population Research and Policy Review, 33(4), 553-577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-013-9282-9 Free PubMed version.

James-Hawkins, Laurie, Denardo, Danielle, Blalock, Casey, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2014). Do depressive symptoms in male and female adolescents predict unintended birth in emerging adulthood? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(9), 2115-2123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1459-2 Free PubMed version.

Lawrence, Elizabeth M., Pampel, Fred C., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2014). Life course transitions and racial and ethnic differences in smoking prevalence. Advances in Life Course Research, 22, 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2014.03.002 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Domingue, Benjamin W., & Boardman, Jason D. (2014). Norms as group-level constructs: Investigating school-level teen pregnancy norms and behaviors. Social Forces, 93(1), 241-267. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sou063 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Domingue, Benjamin W., & Boardman, Jason D. (2014). Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors. Advances in Life Course Research, 20, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2013.12.004 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, James-Hawkins, Laurie, Lawrence, Elizabeth, & Fomby, Paula. (2014). Health lifestyles in early childhood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(4), 386-402. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146514555981 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Lawrence, Elizabeth, James-Hawkins, Laurie, & Fomby, Paula. (2014). How resource dynamics explain accumulating developmental and health disparities for teen parents’ children. Demography, 51(4), 1199-1224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-014-0301-1 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Lawrence, Elizabeth, James-Hawkins, Laurie, & Fomby, Paula. (2014). When do socioeconomic resources matter most in early childhood? Advances in Life Course Research, 20, 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2014.03.001 Free PubMed version.

Pampel, Fred, Mollborn, Stefanie, & Lawrence, Elizabeth M. (2014). Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use. Social Science Research, 43, 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.08.005 Free PubMed version.

Dennis, Jeff A., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2013). Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States. Social Science Journal, 50(4), 625-634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2013.09.008 Free PubMed version.

Everett, Bethany, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2013). Differences in hypertension by sexual orientation among U.S. young adults. Journal of Community Health, 38(3), 588-596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9655-3 Free PubMed version.

Hoekstra, Angel, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2012). How clicker use facilitates existing pedagogical practices in higher education: data from interdisciplinary research on student response systems. Learning, Media and Technology, 37(3), 303-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2011.568493

Jacobs, Janet, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2012). Early motherhood and the disruption in significant attachments: Autonomy and reconnection as a response to separation and loss among African American and Latina teen mothers. Gender & Society, 26(6), 922-944. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243212459073 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Blalock, Casey. (2012). Consequences of teen parents’ child-care arrangements for mothers and children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 846-865. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00988.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2012). Explaining the early development and health of teen mothers’ children. Sociological Forum, 27(4), 1010-1036. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1573-7861.2012.01366.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2012). Investigating the life situations and development of teenage mothers’ children: Evidence from the ECLS-B. Population Research and Policy Review, 31(1), 31-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-011-9218-1 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2012). Ready or not: Predicting high and low school readiness among teen parents’ children. Child Indicators Research, 5(2), 253-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-011-9126-2 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Fomby, Paula, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2012). Extended household transitions, race/ethnicity, and early childhood cognitive outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(5), 1152-1165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.04.002 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Jacobs, Janet. (2012). “We’ll figure a way”: Teenage mothers’ experiences in shifting social and economic contexts. Qualitative Sociology, 35(1), 23-46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-011-9213-1 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2011). “Children” having children. Contexts (Berkeley Calif), 10(1), 32-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536504211399048 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Fomby, Paula, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2011). Who matters for children’s early development? Race/ethnicity and extended household structures in the United States. Child Indicators Research, 4(3), 389-411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-010-9090-2 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Lovegrove, Peter J. (2011). How teenage fathers matter for children: Evidence from the ECLS-B. Journal of Family Issues, 32(1), 3-30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X10370110 Free PubMed version.

Sennott, Christie, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2011). College-bound teens’ decisions about the transition to sex: Negotiating competing norms. Advances in Life Course Research, 16(2), 83-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2011.05.001 Free PubMed version.

Fomby, Paula, Mollborn, Stefanie, & Sennott, Christie A. (2010). Race/ethnic differences in effects of family instability on adolescents’ risk behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(2), 234-253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00696.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2010). Exploring variation in teenage mothers’ and fathers’ educational attainment. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 42(3), 152-159. https://doi.org/10.1363/4215210 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2010). Predictors and consequences of adolescents’ norms against teenage pregnancy. Sociological Quarterly, 51(2), 303-328. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2010.01173.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Everett, Bethany. (2010). Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens’ sexual experience. Journal of Sex Research, 47(4), 314-329. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490902954315 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Hoekstra, Angel. (2010). “A meeting of minds”: Using clickers for critical thinking and discussion in large sociology classes. Teaching Sociology, 38(1), 18-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092055X09353890

Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2009). Growing up faster, feeling older: Hardship in childhood and adolescence. Social Psychology Quarterly, 72(1), 39-60. https://doi.org/10.1177/019027250907200105 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2009). Norms about nonmarital pregnancy and willingness to provide resources to unwed parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(1), 122-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00584.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2009). Teenage parents’ perceptions of life course disruption, norms, and support. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association annual meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Dennis, Jeff A. (2009). Social disadvantage and the early development of teenage parents’ children. Paper presented at the Population Association of America annual meeting, Detroit, MI.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Morningstar, Elizabeth. (2009). Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(3), 310-326. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650905000305 Free PubMed version.

Dennis, Jeff A., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2008). Protective factors for birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: Southwestern Social Science Association annual meeting. Las Vegas, NV.

Fomby, Paula, Mollborn, Stefanie, & Sennott, Christie A. (2008). Racial and ethnic differences in the effect of family instability on adolescents’ behavior. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association annual meeting, Boston, MA.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Dennis, Jeff A., & Fomby, Paula. (2008). Racial/ethnic differences in family structure effects on early development. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations annual meeting, Little Rock, AR.

Mollborn, Stefanie, & Lovegrove, Peter J. (2008). Teenage fathers’ resources and coresidence and child outcomes: Evidence from a new national survey. Paper presented at the Population Association of America annual meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Mollborn, Stefanie. (2007). Making the best of a bad situation: Material resources and teenage parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 69(1), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00347.x Free PubMed version.

Tinkler, Justine Eatenson, Li, Yan E., & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2007). Can legal interventions change beliefs? The effect of exposure to sexual harassment policy on men’s gender beliefs. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70(4), 480-494. https://doi.org/10.1177/019027250707000413

Bailey Mollborn, Stefanie. (2006). Understanding teenage pregnancy norms and their influence on teenage mothers’ and fathers’ life outcomes. (Ph.D. Dissertation), Stanford University, Stanford, California. Retrieved from

Stepanikova, Irena, Mollborn, Stefanie, Cook, Karen S., Thom, David H., & Kramer, Roderick M. (2006). Patients’ race, ethnicity, language, and trust in a physician. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(4), 390-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650604700406 Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie, Stepanikova, Irena, & Cook, Karen S. (2005). Delayed care and unmet needs among health care system users: When does fiduciary trust in a physician matter? Health Services Research, 40(6, part 1), 1898-1917. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00457.x Free PubMed version.

Mollborn, Stefanie Bailey. (2004). Teenage mothers’ and fathers’ available resources and school dropout. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association 2004 annual meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Mollborn, Stefanie Bailey. (2004). Who says it’s so bad? The influence of racial culture and neighborhood socioeconomic structure on teen pregnancy norms. Paper presented at the Add Health Users Conference, Bethesda, MD.

Bailey, Stefanie, & Marsden, Peter V. (1999). Interpretation and interview context: Examining the General Social Survey name generator using cognitive methods. Social Networks, 21(3), 287-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8733(99)00013-1

Chapters in Peer-Reviewed Books

Stepanikova, Irena, Cook, Karen S., Thom, David, Kramer, Roderick, & Mollborn, Stefanie. (2009). Trust in managed care settings. In Karen S. Cook, Margaret Levi, & Russell Hardin (Eds.), Whom can we trust? How groups, networks, and institutions make trust possible (pp. 149-181). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Cook, Karen S., Kramer, Roderick M., Thom, David H., Stepanikova, Irena, Mollborn, Stefanie Bailey, & Copper, Robin M. (2004). Trust and distrust in patient-physician relationships: Perceived determinants of high- and low-trust relationships in managed-care settings. In Roderick M. Kramer & Karen S. Cook (Eds.), Trust and distrust in organizations: Dilemmas and approaches (pp. 65-98). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Invited Book Chapters

Wilkins, Amy C., Mollborn, Stefanie, & Bó, Boróka. (2014). Constructing difference. In Jane D. McLeod, Edward J. Lawler, & Michael Schwalbe (Eds.), Handbook of the social psychology of inequality (pp. 125-154). Dordrecht: Springer.